This is surgery to remove the appendix because of confirmed or suspected infection of the appendix (appendicitis). In the procedure, an incision about 5 centimeters long is made in the right lower abdomen. The intestine is examined and the appendix is found. Even if the appendix is not inflamed, it will be removed, unless there is some reason not to do so. The abdominal wall is then closed by suturing together the layers. If there is some reason that surgical removal of the appendix is not possible (e.g. lack of proper facilities), the patient is put on antibiotics and everyone waits for either the appendicitis to subside or for surgery to become possible. The surgery carries with it anesthesia risks as well as the risk of infection and bleeding. The consequences of not having the treatment include rupture (perforation) of the appendix, which can lead to infection of the inside lining of the abdominal wall (peritonitis). Peritonitis not only increases the length of hospital stay and need for further treatment, but also increases the chance of wide-spread bacterial infection (sepsis), which can be fatal.
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