Born 1922. A molecular biologist who was the first to do experiments in the molecular cloning of genes from one strain of bacteria into another. In particular, he cloned the gene for resistance to tetracycline (an antibiotic), found in Staphylococcus aureus, into Escherichia coli, which did not have resistance to tetracycline before. By doing this, he demonstrated that it is possible to take genes from one organism, put them into a different organism, and have the gene survive intact and able to make functioning proteins in the new organism.
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