In a population containing the genotypes of AA, aa, and Aa, the frequency of AA will be p2, the frequency of aa will be q2, and the frequency of Aa will be 2 pq at equilibrium, where p is the frequency of A and q is the frequency of a. By the Hardy-Weinberg law, a ramdonly-mating population will eventually reach these frequencies and be at this equilibrium as long as there are no selection pressures on the population.
Selected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium links:
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