The procedure: A periumbilical incision is made. After the abdominal cavity is inflated with carbon dioxide through a small needle inserted into the incision, the laparoscope is introduced. One to two other incisions each about 0.5 to 1 cm diameter is made around the suprapubic area. Alternative courses of action: depend on the medical condition for which laparoscopy is indicated. Material effects, risks and side effects: residual carbon dioxide may irritate the diaphragm causing shoulder pain for up to 12 hours; potential for trauma to the bladder, bowel and blood vessels, in which case, open laparotomy will be done. Consequences of not having the treatment: depend on the medical condition for which laparoscopy is indicated.
Selected The procedure: links: